Tag Archives: Clyde Stubblefield

James Brown-Live At The Apollo, Round Two On Record, At Nearly Half a Century

James Brown’s career had a major turning point during 1967-68. Musically speaking,h is songs were not only taking on a completely different character instrumentally. But in terms of format? He had gone from 3-4 minute doo-wop soul balladry to extended,horn based dance jams that were getting their rhythmic character from Latin boogaloo and African high life music. This, of course was known as funk. With the recent passing of John “Jabo” Starks, who played in tandem with the late Clyde Stubblefield during this period very heavily, it seemed a good time to discuss JB’s own funk process onstage.

The “funk process” was entering it’s peak for James Brown. As was his sociopolitical consciousness and activity. During the summer of love, and the emergence of Sly Stone and Jimi Hendrix, many black American’s in the early/mid 30’s even at the time were still very much in love with the suited up, processed haired JB. One who was a dramatic, gospel fueled soul balladeer. While his persona was still in the same place, James Brown’s second live recording at the Apollo would have to serve to illustrate the change in perception of his artistry.

The album begins with an introduction that goes into a faster tempo’d,heavy grooving version of “Think”, where James duets with the sassy Marva Whitney. “I Want To Be Around” and “That’s Life” are both ballad standards making strong use of orchestration and his Famous Flames. “Kansas City” is done at a very fast tempo and in a different key than I usually hear this sometimes over covered song played in. It is through “Let Yourself Go”,”There Was A Time” and “I Feel Alright” are an elongated,bass/guitar driven funky process all it’s on that leads to…”Cold Sweat” of course-his big record at the time.

After an equally furious tempo on “It May Be The Last Time” and a brief intro of “I Got You (I Feel Good)”, JB goes into an elongated version of “Prisoner Of Love”-similar in approach to “It’s A Man’s Man’s Man’s World” and “Lost Someone” later in the album. “Bring It Up” has another a very fast tempo similar to “Please Please Please”, which concludes the album. “”Try Me” meanwhile is done more traditionally.  I once heard this  album described as erratic it sounding- likely because it emphasized extended soul ballads rather than focusing on JB’s funk innovations of the late 60’s.
On the surface, there actually is some fact in that. Taking this album out of the literary context and back into the more human one? The fact these ballads are done in 7-10 minutes lengths is musically futurist for soul as well-anticipating the approach Barry White and Isaac Hayes would take several years later on conceptually thick studio albums with a similar style format. Likewise, the shorter uptempo numbers (which are often combined together here) anticipated the musical formats of the disco era medley’s that would show up within a decade from this albums release.
Also, this allowed more vocal oriented fans of James Brown to acclimate to the idea of extended runs. Also,when the funk is on fire here? It’s SERIOUSLY on fire-probably because it was performed as it was being innovated. Not to mention how these JB’s musical innovations were generally closely linked with his live performances. Combined with James’ grateful, appreciative and loving interaction with the audience? This is also JB’s key transitional moment as a performer-as he was further emphasizing the instrumental sound of the JB’s more then the vocal centered one of the Famous Flames.
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Clyde Stubblefield,Thank You For Laying The Foundation

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Clyde Stubblefield,born in Chattanooga Tennessee in  1943,became interested in music based on his interest in the rhythms of the factories and trains around him. This is a fitting legacy for a man who,in 1967,would be asked along with fellow JB drummer John “Jabo” Starks to “make the entire band sound like a drum”. Everything from the shuffling rhythms of hip-hop and new jack swing,along with the stripped down rhythms of modern electronica,come directly from Mister Stubblefield.  Sadly,one of the most sampled drummers in music history passed of kidney failure on February 18th,2017.

I first learned the name of Stubblefield from a wonderful documentary on sampling entitled Copyright Criminals. Stubblefield was a participant-playing and discussing his famous drum break from James Brown’s “Funky Drummer”. The man said he wasn’t particularly concerned with money in regard to sampling his drum break. But just credit for it. Even Rolling Stone magazine,who often snub the influence of funk/soul musicians,named Stubblefield their drummer of the year in 1990. This began a series of accolades to a musician who I’m about to discuss the reason why he’s so revered.

Stubblefield’s approach to drumming,from “Cold Sweat” through “Funky Drummer” is based on playing a series of unusual syncopation’s with a light touch on his drums. This technique has been referred to as playing “ghost notes”. Its something a lot easier to hear and dance to than it is to explain with the written word. Speaking personally,it was a sound that myself (and I’m sure many others) knew extremely well before we even heard of Clyde Stubblefield. Even though he and James Brown are not with us anymore,their approach to music can never be extinguished from existence.

The saddest thing about Stubblefield is that his latter day health problems had him falling victim to the syndrome of a lot of elder musicians. Without record company residuals or health insurance for support,his medical bills ended up coming from other musical benefactors. Prince (who passed away last year) was a major one. Considering Stubblefield his idol as a drummer,he donated $80,000 to help pay his medical bills. So in terms of both his music and healthcare,Clyde Stubblefield’s legacy seemed to bring out the best in other musicians in terms of preserving his creative legacy.

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Anatomy of THE Groove: “Cold Sweat” by James Brown (July 1967)

James Brown and his sax player Alfred “Pee Wee” Ellis wrote and recorded a song during JB’s 34th birthday month in 1967 called “Cold Sweat”. As with many James Brown songs,it was developed from part of an earlier song. In this case,a soul ballad entitled “I Don’t Care” from his 1962 album Tour The U.S.A. Ellis had heard James grunting out a very rhythm bass line. He had been listing to the Miles Davis song “So What” a lot at the time. And was thinking a similar horn chart would work well as James Brown was rebooting his song for what he called “the funky bag I’m into right now”.

Speaking personally,this song is actually the very root of Andresmusicalk. My father once wrote a musical breakdown of War’s The World Is A Ghetto album while in college.  And he suggested that myself and my friend Henrique Hopkins do a two part breakdown of “Cold Sweat”,the James Brown song that inaugurated the funk sound we all really love. Many things have happened since than. But with my father and Henrique’s encouragement and information,I’m going it alone on talking about this song that not only launched this blog in a way,but did the same for an entire genre.

Clyde Stubblefield throws down his funky drum as the bass of this song right in the center of the Afro Cuban rhythmic clave. Both the rhythm guitar of Jimmy Nolan,Alphonso Kellum and the bass of Bernard Odum all utter a series of harmonically complex scaling lines in close concert with one another-with the JB horns playing those two note modal jazz style charts as Stubblefield comes down on the hi hats. On the refrains,James’s lyrical screams of “I DON’T CARE” keep the progression forward-until on the chorus,the drum breaks right out for the horns to scale right up with James’s vocals.

After the first vocal chorus,Maceo Parker delivers an expansion on the main horn charts of the song on his tenor sax solo. That’s also the first bridge of the song.After this,James calls out “GIVE THE DRUMMER SOME!” repeatedly to Stubblefield,who promptly delivers the percussive,break heavy drum solo that defines the whole groove. After this,the chorus refrain patter comes right back in. As the song begins the fade out,the second refrain becomes the main one. A refrain where the horns and Nolan’s guitar play in near perfect unison with the beat before the song does indeed fade away.

There are some times where studying any art you admire can dampen ones appreciation of it. That hasn’t been the case with myself and “Cold Sweat” at all. The more I learn about the nature of it’s instrumental content,the more musically revolutionary it reveals itself to be. James of course strips out most of the straight melodic elements to the point where the horns,drums,guitar and bass are playing melody,harmony and rhythm all at the same time. It truly was an extremely unique way to present music. And perhaps represents the very moment when James Brown forever reshaped American popular music.

 

 

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Filed under 1960's, Afro-Cuban rhythm, Alphonso Kellum, Bernard Odum, chicken scratch guitar, clave, Clyde Stubblefield, drum breaks, drums, Funk, Funk Bass, horns, James Brown, Jimmy Nolan, Maceo Parker, Pee Wee Ellis, rhythm guitar, Saxophone, Uncategorized

Anatomy of THE Groove: “Funky Drummer” by James Brown & The JB’s

James Brown’s grooves importance to me is that they came to me pretty late in the game. That is in terms of discovering funk. Long before that happened on a personal level,the discovery of The Godfather within the newly emerging musical genre of hip-hop came at the same time as the advent of the computer sound sampler. Public Enemy’s Bombsquad made samples of JB’s music a mainstay in their rhythmic based sound. While I feel it important for the funk to always remain it’s own reward,JB’s music in particular would probably not be so well known to so many American’s between the ages of 20-50 without the funk archive that is sampling.

There are many JB numbers that remain a key part of the vocabulary of the samples library. One of them however remains key. It was recorded on November 20th,1969. And was released as a single five months later. Originally it was released at a two part single version-each of the parts less then three minutes a piece. When I first heard the full version on the JB box set Star Time,it made little impact on my ears or me feet. After coming back to it over a decade later,it became clear how much an understanding of JB’s rhythmic intent opened this song right up. And the name of of this important groove is called “Funky Drummer”.

The trumpets of Joe Davis and Richard Kush Griffith both play right on the beat with the songs own funky drummer Clyde Stubblefield. The main groove of the song is a vamp based on Stubblefield hitting the snare high on the second or third beat-depending on where Kush,Fred Wesley,Maceo Parker and the rest of the JB horn section happened to be hitting on the groove from. Of course Jimmy Nolan’s trademark chicken scratch guitar locks it all down along Charles Sherrell’s busy,jazzy bass line. JB plays a number of organ solos-starting short and ending more elaborately near the end of the groove while sharing a space for Maceo to solo too.

Of course what really gets it going is when JB calls out  Stubblefield solo with just his snare-on-the-one beat twice in the groove. That’s the part that became the nucleus of the hip-hop beat during the sampling age. As it’s own groove,”Funky Drummer” is a straight vamp without any long musical breaks or changes in melody. In a lot of ways,it almost stands as pretty raw funk material from the JB’s. What keeps it so fresh and exciting is the amazing musical precision involved. This is probably where JB himself might’ve fully succeeded in his ambition to get his entire band to sound like a drum. And that will probably continue to remain this songs legacy in the anatomy of the funk groove.

 

 

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Filed under 1970's, Charles Sherrell, chicken scratch guitar, Clyde Stubblefield, drums, Fred Wesley, Funk, Funk Bass, Hip-Hop, horns, James Brown, Jimmy Nolan, Maceo Parker, organ, Richard Kush Griffith, Sampling, Saxophone, The JB's

Maurice White Remembered On Andresmusictalk, Part 3: “Uhuru” by the Ramsey Lewis Trio

Five years before he left to found Earth Wind & Fire, Maurice White was the second drummer for the Ramsey Lewis Trio. He had succeeded the groups original drummer Isaac “Red” Holt after he’d left to form Young-Holt Unlimited in 1966. That group in turn had a huge instrumental hit with “Soulful Strut” three years after leaving Ramsey’s trio. Maurice observed that while the trio played on a lot of college campuses while he was in it, most of the audience were more in his age group than Ramsey and bassist Cleveland Eaton. In the latter period of his being part of the trio,began to envision a jazzy funk/soul sound that would appeal more to latter silent generation people.

Maurice’s final album as the drummer for the Ramsey Lewis Trio was 1969’s Another Voyage. For the most part,it continued in the groove and rhythm centered soul jazz the trio had pioneered throughout the 60’s. A groove that became crucial to the development of the jazz/funk genre as much as that of the Jazz Crusaders. For his part,Maurice had already developed a strong interest in Egyptology. That cultural ethic and music had also been popular with free jazz pioneers such as Sun Ra beforehand. And Maurice was intent on integrating that into Ramsey’s trio by the end of the 60’s. The result was my favorite song on this particular album entitled “Uhuru”-the Swahili word for “freedom”.

Eaton’s funky upright bass popping opens the song. It lays the groundwork for the rhythm of the song-most of which is supplied courtesy of Maurice White himself. His percussive drumming on the song is based on a slower Clyde Stubblefield style rhythm with a lot of jazzier fills on brushing cymbals and hi hat. Over that Maurice brings in the main melody on the African thumb piano known as the Kalimba. This melodic statement evolves into a thick,purely rhythmic solo as the song continues. The sound of the trios members hooting and hollering ques to one another comes together with hand claps on the final verses of the song for an extra thick groove.

When I first heard this song,it occurred to me that the melody Maurice played on Kalimba here was one which I’d heard before. That same Kalimba melody did in fact show up 14 years later on the EWF album Powerlight in 1983. It was used on the more electronic interlude of “Mizar” at the end of the albums first side on vinyl. The sound on this song,it’s title and general atmosphere showcased the beginning of Maurice White’s expression of Afrocentricity as a positive social and musical force as the 1960’s transitioned into the 70’s. On the more personal level,it was  exciting to hear the main framework of EWF’s sound begin while Maurice was the drummer in another group.

 

 

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Filed under 1960's, Afro Funk, Afrocentrism, Cleveland Eaton, drums, Earth Wind & Fire, Egyptology, jazz funk, Kalimba, Maurice White, Ramsey Lewis, Ramsey Lewis Trio, soul jazz, Uncategorized, upright bass

Anatomy of THE Groove for 1/16/2015-Andre’s Pick: “Tea Party” by Nona Hendryx

One of the things that could be said for Nona Hendryx is that she constantly challenged just what a black woman had the potential to deliver in the music world. She had her beginnings with Patti Labelle and Sarah Dash of course. But she became the first black female artist to release a hard rock album on a major US label in the 70’s-something even Tina Turner didn’t do in the next decade.

After fronting her own progressive art/funk band Zero Cool and releasing a number of groundbreaking solo albums-recording with the expanded Talking Heads and working with Prince during the 1980’s? She was absent from music for 22 more years until her next album Mutatis Mutandis emerged in 2012. It was led off by the extremely appropriate number called “Tea Party”.

Beginning with a unison of horn and rhythm guitar fanfare from Jay Jennings and Ronny Drayton,the song goes into a classic Clyde Stubblefield style drum part with that percussive accent between the second and third beat. from Trevor Gale. Nona,Keyontia Hawkins and Keith Fruit provide the backup vocals as Nona rap-sings in the classic JB approach with Drayton coming on with an amplified Stevie Ray Vaughn style blues rock guitar on the refrains. Following  a hard grooving sax workout from Jennings,the song closes off a gospel drenched soul-jazz organ from Etienne Stadwijk.

Not only does Nona Hendryx pull off a wonderful funk groove that totally relates the funk structure provided by James Brown,the Southern Soul of the Memphis sound with soul-jazz and blues rock instrumentation? But brings the same level of social activist preaching she’s put into matters such as LGBT rights into a song that puts the hypocrisy and high level racism of the tea party-referencing it as represented the “castration of the nation” and being the “me party”-melodically referencing the opening vocal line from Funkadelic’s “One Nation Under A Groove”. It’s a wonderful total rebirth of the strong live band funk of many colors-“people music” that addresses an urgent human rights issue with a striking combination of wit,intelligence and humor.

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Filed under Funk, Funkadelic, James Brown, LGBTQ rights, message songs, Nona Hendryx, P-Funk, Prince, Talking Heads, tea party

Anatomy Of The Groove 1/9/2015-Andre’s Pick: “Berlin Street Funk” by Peter Muller

One of the true blessings of the internet is the ability for independent musicians,from all different genres,to have the available infrastructure to not only promote and release their music but also be able to maintain it’s intended creative flavor. Bremen Germany born Peter Muller is such a case of a vital funk bass player whose career took off entirely during (and to a great degree because of) the internet. With a father playing acoustic bass and piano,Muller became a sideman during the 90’s who was very much attracted to the playing approach of Stanley Clarke,Mark King and the incomparably multi talented Marcus Miller.

Shortly after joining the UK’s Frank Mead Band,Muller started a solo career. And in doing so became among one of the earliest pioneers who made full use of digital recording software to record his music directly on and to his own PC.  Developing his own studio known as Wave Island,Muller recorded his debut in 2003. His second album The Flow became a prominent aspect of the then still growing iTunes Jazzhcharts. After several years of working primarily as a music educator,Muller assembled some of the members of the Frank Mead band,including the man himself for his next album in 2014’s No Mind-which opened with the song “Berlin Street Funk”.

Beginning with an isolated and classic funky drum solo directly from the Clyde Stubblefield school,Muller’s punching slap bass solo comes in playing a bluesy funk solo,followed up by keyboardist Tobias Neumann’s jazzy notations on the Rhodes. Mead then comes in on sax playing the basic melody Muller originally threw down on his electric bass. All surrounding an unusually clear cut sample of the rhythm guitar line from James Brown’s “Sex Machine”,. Following a bridge featuring a sax improvisation from Meade? The music builds up to an intense unison of grooving led by Tim Canfield’s wah-wah guitar eventually building into a reverb laden jazz-rock styled electric guitar solo that is cut off by Mead’s closing sax solo that provides the final fanfare to the song.

Perhaps it was Muller’s years as a music educator that inspired him to present this song the way he did. The fact that each instrument from each of the band members he was working with build up the song from the foundation upward? Each playing directly off the drum and bass part Muller put down? There is just as much of an instructional element to this song as their is entertainment factor. And that factor is very heavy too because each of these players combines the funky basics of James Brown,the slap bass of Marcus Miller and the harmonically enriching electric piano approach of a Herbie Hancock and mixes them together for a potent and live band style funky stew of grooves,rhythms and complex melodies. Surely this qualifies as Peter Muller’s own jam of the year!

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Filed under 2014, Frank Meade Band, Funk, Funk Bass, Germany, James Brown, Jazz-Funk, Marcus Miller, Mark King, Peter Muller, Stanley Clarke